top of page
Thermodynamics-Header.jpg

Power Transmission (1D)

Model and analyze mechanical powertrains, gears and mechanisms from different industries efficiently, such as:

  • Air, rail and motor vehicles

  • Industrial machinery and machine tools

  • Construction machinery, agricultural technology, mobile machinery

  • Wind energy plants, (mechanical) power plant technology

  • Conveying technology

  • Shipbuilding

  • Device and plant technology

  • Robotics and precision engineering

230_PowerTransmission1D.png

The model elements contained in this module help you in the simulation-based design of drivetrains and controllers as well as in the investigation of physical interactions with surrounding structures, e.g. hydraulic controls or electrical system components (converters, etc.). A large number of assembly-oriented elements are provided for this purpose. They can be parameterized in a user-friendly way with catalog data or design parameters (e.g. geometry or nominal data). The physical system parameters such as stiffness or backlash are first determined using internal approaches. If the corresponding information is available, the user can replace these internal approaches with detailed information and map additional effects and details relevant to your analysis task. The elements are based on the basics of 1D Mechanics and can be easily coupled via interfaces with SimulationX models from other domains (e.g. Thermal).

Add Animation Bodies to your models to create spatial visualizations and animations that help you and your colleagues develop a system understanding faster.

Simulation models based on this module are particularly useful for the following analyses:

  • Torsional vibration analyses and transmission behavior (e.g. NVH analyses (Noise-Vibration-Harshness))

  • Kinematic and kinetic analyses of gears, drives and loads, also taking into account the influence of elastic component mounts

  • Non-linear effects such as gear rattling, parameter excitation in tooth mesh, rattling vibrations and self-locking, stick-slip effects (clutches), or other influences of backlash and non-linear stiffness and damping

  • Energetic analyses: Storage (masses, stiffnesses) or losses (friction, damping)

  • Influence of thermal properties (e.g. temperature-dependent friction, also in combination with the module Thermal

  • Interactions with controllers or non-linear or time-varying loads (acceleration, load change during clutch shifting)

  • Controller development, including Software- or Hardware-in-the-Loop environments (SiL, HiL, XiL)

  • … and much more.

 

Optimize your system behavior with automated parameter studies or develop new solutions for more efficient, convenient, and powerful drives.

Planar Mechanics and Power Transmission (2D)

Design and analyze linkages and cam-, chain-, belt-, and cable drives or complete drive solutions with the help of system simulation. This module allows you to obtain reliable information about the kinematic transmission behavior, the occurring joint forces, or the influence of inertial forces on your system at an early stage.

This module is particularly recommended for the following industries and areas:

  • Packaging and processing machinery

  • Furniture hinges

  • Equipment and plant engineering

  • Machine tools and industrial robots

  • Special machines

  • Land, forestry, construction machinery or motor vehicle construction

Planar systems are composed of bodies that are constrained to have two translational and one rotational degrees of freedom of movement. Forces and torques affecting system performance only act in these coordinates, allowing a much more efficient analysis and clearer design of the models. Elements from other modules can be integrated into planar models as well to create structures of any complexity.

Mechanisms (Planar Linkages)

Design and investigate the dynamic properties of planar linkages and cam disk drives in an intuitive workflow. Increase your efficiency when designing and recalculating linkages typically used in machine tools and industrial machinery or in construction and agricultural machinery. Using only eight basic elements contained in this module, any mechanisms can be mapped quickly and purposefully.

Chain Drives

Analyze the vibration behavior and motion of chain drives reliably, taking into account interactions with surrounding structures such as frames, clamping devices, drives and loads, or control systems. Examine the effects or the influence of:

  • the polygon effect and the resulting excitation of the system,

  • torque fluctuations of the drive or of the loads on the vibrations of the elastic strands,

  • the chain sag,

  • the system behavior in case of accidents or emergency stop scenarios or

  • on loads (span forces) within the chain.

Belt Drives

Analyze flat belt, traction, cable, or rope drives with model elements from the library Belt Drives and get information about their dynamic behavior and their interactions with surrounding systems through meaningful calculations. Typical areas of application are:

  • Hoists,

  • Rope and belt drives or tensioning devices,

  • Paper and film guiding devices,

  • Winding and wire drawing machines,

  • Flat yarn guides in textile machines or

  • Drives of auxiliary power units in motor vehicles.

MBS Mechanics (3D)

Analyze the spatial-mechanical interactions between components and assemblies with the Multibody Systems (MBS) library. The large selection of model elements allows you to investigate the motion (kinematics) of bodies in all six degrees of freedom as well as their interactions (kinetics) with each other in the time and frequency domain.

220_MBS.png

Whether you are a simulation beginner or experienced user, you can quickly and intuitively set up a three-dimensional multi-body system. In contrast to other Modelica applications, the 3D View provides a geometrically consistent representation of your model during the parameterization. There are various tools to create and parameterize MBS structures directly in the 3D View analogous to CAD tools. SimulationX offers visualization and animation options for your model during or after the simulation: you can analyze spatial movements of the components as well as force and torque vectors or variable quantities, such as geometry and color. The animation of natural vibration mode shapes is also possible. You can also export an animation as a video file for presentation purposes.

In addition to the representation of rigid bodies based on basic geometries (cuboid, cylinder, ...), you can also import complex CAD geometries. On the basis of such data, SimulationX determines volume, center of gravity, mass and inertia tensor automatically.

The libraries also include various interface elements to couple MBS structures with other physical domains directly in the same SimulationX model making it useable in a wide range of applications:

  • Mobile machinery (construction and agricultural machinery)

  • Industrial machinery and machine tools (mechanisms, elastic support or mounting of assemblies)

  • Robotics (kinematics and interactions between drives, loads and controls)

  • Automotive sector (suspension, NVH analyses)

  • Aerospace (aileron control, landing gear)

  • Rolling stock (bogies)

  • Precision mechanics (cameras, watches, measurement technology)

  • Wind turbines

 

Benefit from all the essential elements of the MBS Mechanics library to solve your tasks in the field of multi-body simulation:

  • Rigid bodies (from a General Body to predefined shapes (sphere, cuboid, cylinder, ...)

  • Rigid bodies based on CAD data (STL geometries)

  • Elastic bodies: beam models based on Timoshenko's theory or from an FEM import (e.g. for modeling gear shafts or crane booms)

  • Ideal joints (General Joint with editable degrees of freedom or special joint types (rotary and thrust joint, CV joint, ball joint, ...)

  • Kinematic constraint ("closing joint")

  • Spring-damper elements (one- or multi-dimensional)

  • Force and torque elements (sources and interfaces)

  • Contact models for the description of rigid body contacts (incl. the 2D Polygon Editor for the definition of Planar Contacts)

  • Movement presets

  • Sensors for measurement of kinematic or kinetic quantities

 

Create open or closed kinematic loops. Use additional modules for CAD Import and import entire structures from different CAD platforms.

MBS Power Transmission (3D)

Analyze spatial physical interactions between components and assemblies in mechanical drive systems.

This module offers you a series of easy-to-use model elements for the representation of gears (helical or spur gear stages or planetary gears) and linkages. You can also obtain models for mapping vehicle tires. This module supplements the model range of the basic element library MBS Mechanics (3D) with complex or more efficient models for mapping special assemblies and physical effects. Use it to solve tasks in the following application areas, for example:

  • Gearboxes and Planetaries

    • Automotive and mechanical engineering (planetary and differential gearboxes)

    • Geared motors (e.g. helical gears)

    • Robot drives

    • Wind energy plants

  • Linkages (Mechanisms)

    • Construction machines, mobile machinery: Excavator arm and wheel loader kinematics

    • Agricultural machinery: kinematics in lifting, swiveling or adjusting devices

    • Plant and equipment construction

  • Wheel-ground contact in automotive applications (vehicle dynamics)

  • Interactions between layout/movements and the fluid-related control system of hydraulic or pneumatic actuators in:

    • Construction machinery (excavators, wheel loaders, ...)

    • Harvesters (combine harvesters, tillage machinery, ...)

    • Municipal utility and emergency vehicles (aerial work platforms, fire engines, ...)

    • Industrial machinery and plant construction (sortation systems, industrial robots, ...)

 

The sub-library Gearbox provides models for mapping helical gear stages in multi-body systems. Include models early in the development process in order to quickly test kinematic layouts of gears or to calculate loads taking machine dynamics into account. 

The library Mechanisms contains special models of planar linkages for the illustration of quadrilateral linkages and crank-slider linkages. Their simple parametrization with little required data allows efficient use in multi-body system models. 

Analyze the driving dynamics, suspension and steering behavior of your vehicle with the wheel-ground contact models from the library Wheels and Tires

With the differential cylinders of the library Actuating Elements you are able to analyze and optimize the behavior of the hydraulic or pneumatic control of your plant. The elements can be integrated immediately into multi-body system and hydraulic/pneumatic structures.

Electronics (analog) and Magnetics

Weather the challenges of growing electrification by extending and analyzing your multi-physics models efficiently with detailed electrical and magnetic circuit models. 

The Analog sub-library of the Electrical and Electronics library allows you to work efficiently on tasks in the field of electrical engineering and electronics covering application areas, such as mechatronics, power electronics and switchgear design. 

Expand your models with structures from the Magnetics library and create electromagnetic drive models in the form of magnetic equivalent circuits. The library provides lumped elements for the description of a magnetic flux's distribution. The structure of the magnetic circuit is largely based on the real system, which allows for efficient and intuitive modeling. You can thus investigate the interactions between the magnetic, electronic and mechanical system components in a single model without the need to integrate external simulation environments. 

The library Electrical Power and Communication Analysis is specially designed for the analysis of linear AC circuits. It includes a power analysis option for the simulation of transient circuits and a signal analysis option for calculating amplitude and phase reactions based on complex circuit analyses of AC systems. This allows you to detect undesirable effects at an early stage of development and helps you optimize the system to meet all the requirements.

The power analysis option enables you to determine a system's voltage and current fluctuations in the time domain. During the steady-state simulation in the frequency domain, you can check the signal attenuation and phase shift (phase vector display) with the help of the signal analysis. 

Analyze the effects and interactions of tolerances, wear, failures and other effects that lead to a deviation from an electrical system's nominal (desired) behavior. The System Reliability Analysis (SRA) library provides you with tools which let you model such faults in electrical connections and components.

Electric Machines and Controls

Manufacturers in mechanical, automotive and marine engineering are facing new challenges in the area of system simulation due to an ever-increasing electrification of drive systems. This module provides you with the necessary tools and models that help you master your tasks in electro-mechanical drive engineering efficiently.

250_ElectricMachines.png

Design your systems or analyze them in regard to the following applications:

  • Vibration analyses of the mechanical drivetrain (vibration excitation from the control system or other machines, noise source)

  • Interactions between machine, control system and power supply (AC or battery), i.e. overvoltage, mechanical overload, short-circuit behavior, emergency shutdown, run-up phase etc.

  • Accuracy and robustness of the drive's control system

  • Losses during dynamic operation

Electromagnetic Model Elements (JMAG-RT Interface)

Create real-time capable machine models that provide a high degree of detail by combining the power of SimulationX with JMAG-RT™. 

Modern finite element analysis (FEA) models allow extremely detailed mapping of electrical machines and their electromagnetic interactions; however their computation times are often very long, making them unsuitable for real-time applications. Coupling SimulationX equivalent circuits models with JMAG-RT™ tools based on FEA data produces real-time capable machine models with a high degree of detail. The model library Electrical Machines with JMAG-RT™ Interface offers models that serve as interfaces between electronic and 1D-mechanical subsystems and can be easily parameterized by importing JMAG-RT data.

Batteries (Steady-State)

The main component of this module is the Batteries Library which was designed for the efficient modeling and simulation of electrical energy storage systems and for the development of optimized battery management systems (BMS).

The cell models focus on three different electrochemical compositions:

  • Lithium-Iron Phosphate (LFP)

  • Nickel-Manganese Cobalt (NMC)

  • Lithium-Titanate Oxide (LTO)

The power loss during the cell's or stack's charging and discharging cycles is treated as thermal dissipation via the element's thermal connectors and can be used for the development of cooling and temperature control functions (in conjunction with the Thermal library).

Balancing functions can be developed in conjunction with the detailed stack model, since the cell's internal connectors can be tapped as an option. For energetic investigations of vehicle powertrains, this library can be combined with the Vehicle Drives (Energy and Controls) library.

MBS Belt Drives

Analyze belt, hoist, or traction drives in SimulationX with model elements from the library Belt Drives and get information about their dynamic behavior and their interactions with surrounding systems through meaningful calculations.

247_MBSBeltDrives.png

Typical applications are:

  • Rope hoists for cranes, elevators and other lifting equipment

  • Rope and belt drives in drives

  • Tensioning devices in cable cars and similar installations

  • Paper and foil guiding devices (e.g. printing or packaging machines)

  • Winding and wire drawing machines

  • Thread guides in textile machines

  • Auxiliary power unit drives in motor vehicles

Develop control strategies, design or optimize controllers, all taking into account the interactions between elastic rope and belt drives in your system. For example, map the vibration behavior of lifts to improve their operating and usage comfort or to virtually design and test safety-relevant system functions.

Belt Conveyors

This module enables the dynamic simulation of belt and pipe conveyors and supports manufacturers, suppliers of drive and control solutions, and operators of belt conveyors in the design, testing, and troubleshooting of systems.

This module offers you solutions for the following fields of application:

  • Determine mechanical loads and vibrations of the system during start and stop processes as well as emergency situations.

  • Perform a virtual commissioning of the plant before it is built.

  • Test your control algorithms in the model or test your real control with a real-time capable model on a hardware test bench.

  • Test ways for optimizing the energy performance index (ISO 50001, ISO 50003) and evaluate the optimization potential before implementation.

  • Validate your models with measurement data, create digital/hybrid twins of the plant to solve tasks of Industry 4.0.

238_BeltConveyors.png

The parameterization is carried out simply by means of constructive variables and parameter specifications of standards (e.g. DIN22101, CEMA 6th. Ed.) and does not require any parameter procurement through complex measurements. The direct visual feedback through animated icons during the simulation (e.g. load course, belt sag) supports you in controlling the simulation, interpreting events and evaluating calculation results.

 

This module is aimed at both the simulation beginner and the advanced user. The included model generator automatically creates the entire model according to your specifications. Afterwards you have the possibility to adapt the model at any time and to change it according to your ideas. In addition to the finished starting basis, you have the freedom to leave the limitations of the model generator and, for example, test innovations. You can add or adjust missing components or other loss descriptions yourself at any time.

 

In addition to individual basic elements such as belt pieces or pulleys, this module contains complete component elements such as drive stations or belt sections including loss calculation and load tracking. In addition, this module is compatible with other libraries (e.g. Power Transmission 1D, Electric Machines and Controls) and thus enables more detailed models of the drive train.

Thermal

Analyze and optimize the thermal behavior of your system to ensure safe and efficient operation. With the elements of this module, you can quickly and conveniently add thermal properties to your model.

The Basic Elements of the Heat Transfer library provide you with a range of basic thermal elements such as capacitors or resistors. Convection and radiation elements enable you to consider the heat exchange between solids and fluids or the radiation-based heat exchange in your system model. Materials can be selected from the integrated material database and thus avoid the often tedious and time-consuming research of thermal material properties. Couple the thermal base elements with other SimulationX libraries to perform a thermal-energetic analysis or analyze thermal balance. Many elements can be spatially discretized and thus bridge the gap between classical system simulation with lumped elements and field simulations such as CFD or FEM.

The Thermal module also includes the elements of the Thermics library. These are classical, lumped elements for building thermal networks which are very popular with our customers due to their high degree of abstraction, simple handling and high performance.

Thermal Fluids (Refrigerants)

Whether heat pumps, air-conditioning systems, or freezers, with the elements of this module, you can model, simulate, and analyze any configuration of compression heat pumps or refrigeration systems with physically correct models (HVAC).

An extensive database of Thermal Fluids is available based on the REFPROP (NIST) standard and includes a large number of refrigerants and industrial gases permitting simulations of two-phase systems, such as refrigerant or steam circuits. Models with table-based fluid properties can be used to create individual fluids, which can also be used in real-time applications due to their high computational efficiency.

The elements of the Thermal-Fluid library can also be used in combination with steady-state heat exchanger models included in the module HVAC and Power Generation (Basics). They also extend thermal models of the Thermal module.

HVAC and Power Generation (Basics)

This module includes elements for modeling systems with single-phase liquid or gaseous working media (including moist air as a special gaseous medium). Design and analyze heating, ventilation or cooling systems and make use of hydrogen technologies. Also examine your system's energy efficiency, control strategies and compliance with required process parameters.

 The HydrogenEnergy library includes basic elements for modeling hydrogen technologies. The electrolyzer and the fuel cell can be combined with the other elements from the HVAC and Power Generation (Basics) module for the examination of energetic concepts to generate, store and reuse hydrogen as an energy carrier.

With the library HVAC and Power Generation (Basics), you can model and analyze fully dynamic heating, ventilation and cooling concepts for many different applications in a short time. Find the optimal system layout through comparative studies or identify unused potential in existing systems to reduce your energy consumption.

Various heat exchanger elements are available for the representation of heating systems:

  • Double Pipe Heat Exchanger,

  • Plate Heat Exchanger,

  • Fin and Tube Heat Exchanger,

  • Plate and Fin Heat Exchanger,

  • Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger,

  • Microchannel Heat Exchanger, and

  • Generic Heat Exchanger.

To use heat exchangers in multiphase fluid circuits, you can connect elements from the Thermal Fluids (Refrigerants) module. To model heat propagation and storage, choose the Thermal module.

Hydraulics & Pneumatics

Hydraulics

Mechanical engineering and plant construction, power generation, automotive applications or the transfer of fluids: They all involve hydraulic lines, reservoirs, valves and actuators which can be analyzed as a dynamic network in a single simulation model using the Hydraulics library.

  • Reduce the development time and costs and increase your machinery's safety and comfort

  • Minimize pressure losses and undesirable vibrations and improve the energetic efficiency of your hydraulic system

  • Create and validate control concepts including non-linear, hydraulic, controlled systems

260_Hydraulics.png

With the Hydraulics library in SimulationX, you get an extensive selection of basic models (including hydraulic volume, pressure source, flow source), actuators, valves and lines as well as component models for transmission actuators. The model elements at the component level facilitate fast modeling based on the hydraulic schematic diagram. The system model is configured interactively. The animated component symbols help you parameterize, but also support you during the analysis of the calculated model. You can define the properties of the model elements in parameter dialogs using catalog data or geometric dimensions.

 

There is no need to set up differential equations or abstract the system with signal diagrams. The model of the hydraulic system represents linear and non-linear properties as in the real system. Even extreme non-linearities, such as pressure- and temperature-dependent fluid properties, nonlinear valve properties, thermal behavior, absorption and dispersion of gases as well as volumetric and mechanical efficiencies, are reflected in the model's behavior. The simulation of hydraulic pipelines enables you to predict pressure surges (water hammer effect) and to calculate pressure pulsations in detail. If necessary, a hydraulic system model can be extended without the need to convert it: For example, you can comfortably set thermo-hydraulic properties in the properties dialog by selecting the appropriate options. This way, you can model and analyze the thermal behavior of both hydraulic controls and fluid-carrying systems for heating, cooling and air-conditioning systems.

Hydraulic Brake Systems

Design and analyze oil-hydraulic brake systems for all sorts of vehicles and machinery. This module offers you elements to model ABS controls, pedals, master cylinders and disc brake calipers as well as a detailed model of a vacuum brake booster. The elements can be used in combination with the Hydraulics, Pneumatics and Mechanics libraries to analyze dynamic effects and interactions of hydraulic brake systems.

Hydraulic Lubrication Systems

This library includes element types for designing oil circuits, especially for the lubrication systems of gearboxes and engines. The range of model elements covers among others:

  • journal bearings for shaft and crank shaft drives,

  • detailed models of an external gear pump and vane pump as well as

  • hydraulic resistances which take rotational effects into account.

The provided hydraulic element types can be used in combination with mechanical elements.

Pneumatics

The Pneumatics module contains elements which can be used for modeling of systems with internal gas flow, such as:

  • Pneumatic drives and handling equipment,

  • Compressed air systems in plants and vehicles,

  • Hydro-pneumatic accumulators and shock absorbers

  • Fuel cells and chemical process equipment.

261_Pneumatics.png

Models are created graphically according to the pneumatic circuit structure. The user does not need to set up differential equations or convert the circuit structure into a signal flow diagram. Several elements are available for interfacing the pneumatic circuit to other libraries, such as mechanics (1D/3D), hydraulics, thermics, or signal processing and control. Moreover, the available standard elements can easily be enhanced, modified or grouped together by using the TypeDesigner.

The gas properties are calculated in the nodes (connections) of the network as a function of pressure, temperature and (for gas mixtures or moist gases) mixture concentration. The user can select the desired gas type in the parameter dialog of the connection. The selected gas is then valid for the entire circuit. This mechanism ensures that different gas (or mixture) types can be used in the same model, but not in the same circuit.

For pure gases the calculation of state variables (pressure and temperature) is done by default based on ideal gas equation. Optionally, it is possible to select different real-gas models (Bender model, Virial equation, Redlich-Kwong, Van-der-Waals). In case of using mixtures or moist gases the fluid allows a variable concentration of gas components. The mixture composition is then calculated in each node (connection) as a function of the current mass flow balance.

The module Pneumatics comes further with lots of predefined gases: There are pure gases, gas mixtures and moist gases, which enable many fields of application. The SimulationX FluidDesigner is a comfortable tool for creation and editing of user defined fluids. Thus allows an efficient description of all for relevant, dynamic-simulation, physical properties of fluid types (e.g. viscosity, density and compressibility) subject to the state quantities: pressure, temperature, and gas fraction. A comprehensive offer of alternative possibilities for the description of fluid properties (e.g. default or arbitrary setup function, curves) guarantees a high flexibility to the user.

Analyze the effects and interactions of tolerances, hydraulic, failures, and other effects that lead to a deviation from the nominal (desired) behavior of a pneumatic system. The System Reliability Analysis (SRA) library provides you with tools for modeling faults of pneumatic connections and components.

SubSea Hydraulics

The SubSea Hydraulics library, developed in close collaboration between ESI Group and the international offshore/sub-sea engineering consultancy Agito, is an intuitive library where the user can find the most used special components in a sub-sea hydraulic system. 

292_SubSeaHydraulics.png

Elements from this library can be extended by elements from other SimulationX libraries to create more comprehensive models of complex systems. The library is based on the existing SimulationX libraries Hydraulics, Mechanics and Signal Blocks. 

An extensive fluid library offers a large selection of predefined hydraulic fluids. Users can easily modify or enhance the list of pre-defined fluids at any time.

SubSea Electrical

The SubSea Electrical library, developed in close collaboration between ESI Group and the international offshore/sub-sea engineering consultancy Agito, is a library specially designed for modeling electrical systems for sub-sea environments. 

293_SubSeaElectrics.png

As power and signals for such applications are transmitted over one system, models built with SubSea Electrical can be used both for signal and power analyses. Both calculations can be performed by simply changing a global parameter without the need to build separate models for each type of analysis. 

Additionally, the model structure can be used for the evaluation of the systems reliability using FTA (Fault Tree Analysis) and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) methods. Risks can thus be reduced and the system can be optimized for reliability and costs.

The signal analysis is performed to verify the signal damping and phase variations (uses the phase vector representation) and is executed as a steady-state simulation in the frequency domain. The power analysis calculates the power variations in the system and typically runs as a transient simulation in the time domain. 

Powertrain Concepts (Vehicles)

The major component of this module is the library Vehicle Drives (Energy and Controls), which is designed for efficient simulations of electric or hybrid electric powertrains and for the development of optimized operating strategies. It is also possible to analyze pure combustion engine driven powertrains.

 Evaluations of a powertrain’s occurring loads, energy, and cost efficiency and the optimization of the controller layout are based on application specific model elements assembled under one GUI. Effects like track and driver profiles are as much part of the consideration as boundary conditions, such as energy costs and driving mode (sporty, economical etc.).

The engine models help to calculate fuel and energy consumption amongst others. Generated electrical energy (from the combustion engine or electrical braking) can be stored in the battery. A bus system enables the signal transfer between the various model elements. Interactions between the sub-systems (e.g. electric machines, gearbox) can be simulated and analyzed also for long operating cycles (simulation times of more than 20 minutes) with respect to external boundary conditions as a longitudinal vehicle model (driving resistance, mass, slope, traction and powertrain).

The library also provides models for investigating the interactions of cooling and heating circuits. The module contains hydraulic elements for a motor cooling circuit or a passenger cabin heating or air conditioning system, since these subsystems also have an important influence on the energy balance.

The module comes with example models for typical application scenarios:

  • Serial hybrid powertrain

  • Parallel hybrid powertrain

  • Power-split hybrid powertrain

  • Electric vehicle powertrain

  • conventional powertrain

Vehicle Transmissions

Benefit from SimulationX’s proven engineering experience in simulating powertrains. Be it initial checks of concepts (type of drive, powertrain typology, transmissions, dimensions etc.) or for detailed analyses of the dynamic behavior and shift times, sophisticated basic elements and models of complete transmission structures allow for fast modeling and economical calculations. 

 Examine interactions between transmission, control unit, and vehicle efficiently and analyze vibrations, natural frequencies, and NVH behavior (noise, vibration and harshness). Use the library Vehicle Transmission also for in-the-loop methods (SiL, HiL) to develop software for control units. Complete and fully customizable models of the major transmission classes provide you with a basic collection and templates to develop your own, custom model libraries.

The Basic Elements let you create individual transmission models. The model elements are optimized for both simple parameterization through geometry data at early design stages and fast simulations in real-time applications. Elasticities and inertias are determined with dimensioning rules included in the model elements. These values can be replaced once detailed data is available.

The sub-library Control Models comprises model elements with animated state charts for controlling transmission elements. It also provides you with components for a bus system for efficient signal transmissions between transmission, clutch, and controllers.

Model elements from the sub-library Transmission Models are complete and ready-to-use models of transmission classes commonly used in vehicles: Automatic Transmission (AT), Automated Manual Transmission (AMT), Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) and Manual Transmission (MT). The hierarchical and open structure allows you to adapt all model elements in detail to the transmission structure in question. Internal model structure can also be extended with model elements from the library Power Transmission (1D).

Combustion Engines (map-based & thermodynamic)

Analyze the vibration and power behavior of drive trains and other connected systems with combustion engine drives from the following areas:

  • Marine propulsion systems (large engines, 2- or 4-stroke)

  • Motor vehicles (cars, trucks, motorcycles)

  • Diesel and gas engine generators (gensets) or generally stationary drives

  • Hydraulic and electric drives in mobile machinery (engine-pump/generator)

  • Cogeneration plants

Use the Combustion Engines module to easily perform the following analysis tasks:

  • (Torsional) vibration behavior due to torque fluctuations and rotational non-uniformities of the combustion engine

  • ... also with misfiring

  • Vibration and NVH analyses (Noise/Vibration/Harshness) taking into account elastic crankshafts and elastic engine mounts

  • Uneven ignition (shift of ignition timing at certain cylinders, influence of smooth running controls, cylinder switch-off for fuel economy)

  • Individual excitation at the cylinders

  • Power flow analyses with mean torque models

The engine models are based on the domain of 1D Mechanics, i.e. they represent the rotational degrees of freedom of the crankshafts, but also the movement of the pistons. Consider the elastic bearing arrangement of the engine and represent the axial losses at the cranks, or friction losses at the cylinder walls or bearings. The models can be easily integrated into complex applications, where different levels of model detail can be selected or achieved by parameterization.

Engine Model Generator

This easy to use tool allows you to build a complete parametric model of an internal combustion engine in SimulationX in seconds and in a safe way, which can be used immediately. Detailed knowledge in modeling or in the application of component models is not required. The generated engine models are available to you as open source classes, which allow you to adapt them for individual applications and store them in your own libraries.

Vehicle Pneumatics

Compressed air is increasingly used in both commercial and luxury vehicles for braking and suspension systems. The Vehicle Pneumatics library comprises a wide range of pre-configured model types for modeling pneumatic braking and suspension systems. 

The library includes models for the following components and assemblies:

  • supply, distribution and storage of compressed air in vehicles,

  • pneumatically operated braking systems (including brake chamber, disk-, drum-, clasp-, and tread-brakes) and

  • air suspension systems

 

Entirely user-defined model elements can be stored within the existing library structure allowing for the compilation of a custom-built in-house library. For modeling thermal effects, we recommend combined use with the Thermal module.

Driving Maneuvers

This module offers you complete vehicle and aircraft models as multi-body systems (MBS) for the analysis of their dynamic behavior during three-dimensional driving or flight maneuvers.

Make use of the included driver models and ready-to-use driving maneuver definitions for automotive applications. You can also develop your own vehicle models for special requirements with model elements, such as tires, axles, and vehicle bodies and investigate the dynamics of your vehicle concepts for any number of axles with or without a trailer.

All components used for the vehicle models can also be used individually for development and testing (e.g. wheel suspension in quarter-vehicle models or dimensioning of wheel test rigs). 

The library also supports common aerospace applications requiring flight dynamics platforms. For this purpose, it includes an airplane as well as a vertical take-off and landing vehicle (VTOL) as pre-defined configurations with internal, size-adjustable or importable CAD bodies. 

Use the models in combination with libraries from other modules, such as Powertrain Concepts (Vehicles)Power Transmission (1D), or Vehicle Transmissions (1D), and investigate the effects of three-dimensional driving maneuvers on the powertrain and the control system or their influence on the driving behavior.

Ship Energy Systems

Energy-efficient vessels save costs through reduced fuel consumption and are environmentally friendly. Besides improved hydrodynamics and powertrain optimization, a great deal of energy can be saved through reduced energy consumption of coolant and fresh air systems.

291_ShipEnergySystems.png

With the library Ship Energy Systems you get a versatile and convenient tool for the simulation of complex energy processes in ships. It allows you to analyze the interdependencies between a ship engines and the auxiliary systems, such as coolant and fresh air circuits and determine potential ways of saving fuel and costs. While traditional methods can only represent a subsystem behavior at typical operating points, the library Ship Energy Systems enables the user to enter on detailed operating scenarios with transient voyage and load conditions. This makes valid variation calculations and identification of optimal operating modes for an entire voyage possible. 

The library Ship Energy Systems contains a vast selection of model elements (engines, pumps, fans etc.) that use temperature-dependent fluid data (e.g. sea and fresh water, several fuel types, air) to calculate energy requirement and conversion. The majority of components are based on characteristic curves and descriptions of physical behavior, as such data - in contrast to proprietary design parameters – are openly accessible by the user. 

Use Ship Energy Systems to identify energy saving potentials early in the design process or within retrofitting measures for existing vessels. Reduce operating costs through optimized system layout and operating modes.

Torsional Vibration Analysis with Report Generator

Analyze the torsional vibration behavior in drive trains. Investigate the interactions between combustion engines, flexible couplings and shafts, as well as marine propellers, pumps or generators.

Torsional vibration analyses of this kind play an important role in the following industries:

  • Shipbuilding and ship certification (including their supplier industries for engines, gears, couplings, shafts)

  • General stationary operating drive systems (operation at constant speeds)

  • Diesel generators and pump drives (e.g. shipbuilding or power plants)

  • Construction and agricultural machinery

SimulationX supports calculation methods that allow you to analyze the steady-state behavior under load in the frequency domain. The models show for example the following influences and effects:

  • Ignition misfire in engine

  • Physical interaction between oscillating crankshaft, reciprocating piston masses and injection (excitation)

  • Frequency dependent stiffness and damping behavior of couplings and viscous dampers

  • Non-linear stiffness and damping of individual components

  • Arbitrarily definable load characteristics

 

Investigate the influence of transient effects on vibration behavior in the time domain, such as excitation at the ship's propeller or switching clutches.

TVA Report Generator

With the TVA Report Generator you get a tool with which you can create torsional vibration reports quickly and easily, for example to submit them to certification companies. Design your own style sheet, specify the report content using predefined modules and add individual descriptions in the generated Word document.

System Reliability Analysis

Analyze the effects and interactions of tolerances, wear, failures, and other effects that lead to a deviation from the nominal (desired) behavior of a system. The System Reliability Analysis (SRA) provides you with modeling and analysis tools for this purpose.

357_SRA.png

Every real system component is subject to various fluctuations, i.e. the real behavior ("system as built or as operated") always deviates from the designed behavior ("system as designed") to a certain degree. An important aspect of system development is therefore to investigate the effects of such deviations and failures on a system's performance, safety and the desired behavior. 

 

Enrich your system models and carry out not only basic reliability and safety analyses, but also more extensive system, software, or hardware tests (XiL tests). Evaluate the effects of different deviations and failures on the system behavior as well as the interactions between occurring failures and their intensities systematically, transparently, and reproducibly with the tools in SimulationX.

The System Reliability Analysis includes model elements and tools for simple, structured, and automated mapping and analyses of such deviations and failures in a system. SimulationX allows for fast and targeted conversions of nominal system models or model components into counterparts which can be used for mapping deviations and faults (so-called fault augmentation).

Simulations of such models allow you to examine the response of a control mechanism to a deviating behavior or to analyze the robustness and responsiveness of the control mechanism to different kinds of deviation. You can also use the tools for model-based diagnostics or for the development of fault detection and classification tools. With such models, you are able to analyze varying hypotheses about the cause of a real system's non-nominal behavior by comparing observed or measured data with results from a simulation. They also allow you to generate synthetic data from a variety of different failure states to supplement missing or unbalanced data for the training of fault detection and classification algorithms.

System Reliability Analysis is all about identifying the various sources of failure in a system with their local intensity in different combinations and the effect on the system's behavior from their interaction with each other. This leads to a very large number of variants which can be simulated efficiently with 16 CPU cores.

Request Module Sheets

Module sheets contain the module description and a  full list of model elements contained within each module.

Thanks for submitting!

bottom of page